Courtland is an incorporated town in Southampton County, Virginia, United States. The population was 1,270 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Southampton County. Originally named Jerusalem, the town was given its present name in 1888. It served as Southampton County's only town through the 18th century, and was, as it remains, the county seat. This quiet little town was formed in 1791 on the north shore of the Nottoway River on a parcel of ten acres (40,000 m²) beside the courthouse.