Arvonia is an unincorporated community in Buckingham County, Virginia founded mainly by Welsh immigrants during the 19th century. The town derives its name from the popular port city of Caernarfon, Wales. Its major industry has been slate mining. The slate is known primarily for its color and durability, and is featured on many prominent American buildings, such as the Smithsonian Castle, and the University of Virginia. The population of Arvonia is 1,106.