Poultney is a town in Rutland County in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Vermont. New York state is on its western border. Castleton, Vermont, is on its northern border. Poultney is home to Green Mountain College, a private liberal arts college with about 820 students. The Village of Poultney is entirely within the town. The town population was 3,432 at the 2010 census.